He told the club website: "I cannot wait to stick a Dale shirt on, get out there and play some football.
"It's not worked out at Barnsley and the main thing for me is to get out and get some games and help Rochdale."
The striker began his career in non-league football before a successful trial with Stockport County led to his first professional contract.
It has been a bit of a rollercoaster for me since I signed for Derby County
He impressed in League Two which lead to a £750,000 move to Derby but failed to make an appearance at Pride Park.
Dickinson added: "I'm glad to be back closer to home, I know a few of the lads and that's a bonus.
"I'd say it has been a bit of a rollercoaster for me since I signed for Derby County. It didn't work out there but I went out on loan to the likes of Huddersfield Town and Blackpool and I did well and scored goals.
"I made the move to Brighton which again didn't work out for me and then I went out on loan again to Peterborough and scored goals there - perhaps I only do well when I'm out on loan."
Source: BBC Sport